The Rights of Non-Muslims in Islam

In this detailed article, we have discussed about the rights of Non-Muslims in Islam.

Categories of Non-Muslims in Islam

The appellation ‘non-Muslim’ includes all non-believers who are divided into four categories:

  • Those who fight Muslims
  • Those who seek asylum
  • Those who have a Pact with Muslims
  • and the People of the Book who reside in Muslim countries (Adh-Dhimiyun).

The rights of each category are:

Those Who Fight Muslims

Those fighting has no right on us, nor protection nor assistance.

Non-Muslims Who Seek Asylum

Those requesting asylum have upon us a right of protection during the time and place set for their asylum, according to the word of Allah,

The Rights of Non-Muslims in Islam

{And if anyone of the idolaters seeks your protection (O Muhammad), then protect him so that he may hear the word of Allah; and afterward convey him to his place of safety.} (Soorah At-Tawbah, 9 :6)

Non-Believers who have a Pact with Muslims

Those who have a Pact with us have as right upon us that we may respect their Pact until the designated term between them and us, as long as they respect this Pact and do not refuse any of our rights, as they help no one against us and do not criticize our religion, according to the word of Allah,

The Rights of Non-Muslims in Quran

{Excepting those of the idolaters with whom you (Muslims) have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfill their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loves those who keep their duty (unto Him).} (Soorah At-Tawbah, 9 :4)

Rights of Non-Muslims Quran

{And if they break their pledges after their treaty (has been made with you) and assail your religion, then fight the heads of disbelief. Lo! they have no binding oaths in order that they may desist.} (Soorah Tawbah, 9 :12)


Adh-Dhimiyun are those who have the more rights and duties in these four categories, as they live in Muslim countries. They are under their protection and guard, in exchange of the capitation tax (Jizyah) that they pay.

The Muslim governor must apply the rights of Islam for people, property and honour; and he must apply to them the sentences in what they regard as illicit [in religion]; He should also protect and exclude from them any wrongdoing.

The People of the Book (in the land of Islam) must be distinguished from the Muslims in their clothing but they should not express anything forbidden in Islam or specific to their religion as the bell or the cross. The rules concerning the People of the Book are cited in the books of scholars and we do not want to expand on the subject here.

And praise be to Allah, Lord of the universe, and may peace and prayer of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and his companions.

Get to know about more such rights in Islam by Enrolling free in these best short Islamic courses.

Scroll to Top